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浅浅介绍一下斯多葛派

/ 3 min read

Stoic(noun): a person who can endure pain or hardship without showing their feelings or complaining.

起源

传说 Zeno of Citium 在沉船之后一无所有,来到雅典学习哲学,在吸收了犬儒主义和苏格拉底的思想后创立了斯多葛派。

斯多葛派起初以芝诺的名字命名,但为了避免个人崇拜,改为以他们交流思想的聚集地 Stoa Poikile(painted porch) 命名。

理所当然也从中世纪没落,文艺复兴再复活,中间影响了不少哲学家,现在又被各种媒体传播。

代表人

  • 芝诺
  • 塞内卡
  • 爱比克泰德
  • 马尔库斯·奥列里乌斯

芝诺等前期人物的思想基本只剩传说,留下可考据文档的主要是后期三位。

观念

  • 宇宙由 logos 组成
  • 宿命论
  • 崇尚自然
  • 伦理:四美德 Courage、Temperance、Justice、Wisdom
  • 对抗 passion(狂热,例如愤怒)
  • 追求 Apatheia(冷静),提倡通过反省和控制情感来实现内在平静与幸福

实践

都是一些有效达到 Apatheia 的方法。

控制的二分法

e chief task in life is simply this: to identify and separate matters so that I can say clearly to myself which are externals not under my control, and which have to do with the choices I actually control. Where then do I look for good and evil? Not to uncontrollable externals, but within myself to the choices that are my own

— Epictetus

非常接近 REBT

转瞬即逝

n down the list of those who felt intense anger at something: the most famous, the most unfortunate, the most hated, the most whatever: Where is all that now? Smoke, dust, legend…or not even a legend. Think of all the examples. And how trivial the things we want so passionately are

— Marcus Aurelius

  • 近大远小

Premeditatio Malorum

  • 消极想象
  • 相当于现在的暴露疗法

Memento Mori

  • 终有一死
  • 人生无常
  • 最后一次
  • eg. 乔布斯

Amor Fati

love only what happens, what was destined. No greater harmony

— Marcus Aurelius

  • 热爱命运
  • 类似中国的尽人事,听天命

阅读

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